Just as there are different types of authorization authorities in different countries, different types of authorization regimes have been adopted. Again, with the sharing of global experience, there has been a convergence in the types of authorization regimes adopted in various countries. Today, the approaches to authorizing ICT service providers and services can be divided into three main categories:
1. Individual authorizations;
2. General authorizations; and
3. Open entry – i.e. no authorization requirement.
As discussed throughout this module, there is a clear trend toward the use of general authorizations and open entry regimes in developed economies, consistent with the general liberalization and convergence of ICT markets. However, individual authorizations continue to be in place in a large number of countries, particularly in developing and transitional economies. Moreover, individual authorizations are used to license the use of radio spectrum when the demand for use of a particular band of radio frequency exceeds availability. Accordingly, issues related to individual licences are also discussed in detail in this module.