In developing nations, access infrastructures are generally underdeveloped. This means that, potentially, there is room for new operators to reach un-served end users with access infrastructure provision. In a number of developing countries, new operators have difficulties in obtaining reasonable interconnection agreements with incumbents. The difficulties of ensuring access to the incumbents’ networks have resulted in infrastructure-based competition preceding service competition in many developing countries. To the extent that new operators are successful in building such access infrastructures, there is an important issue of network interconnection with other operators and primarily the incumbents. However, there are also operators using the access networks of incumbents, first and foremost in the Internet area as Internet Service Providers. A regulatory framework including a combination of tools for advancing service as well as infrastructure-based competition is, therefore, appropriate. However, great emphasis will placed be on the establishment of new access infrastructures because of the under-development in this area. Different forms of cooperatives can be one of the ways to expand access. In some countries such arrangements have existed for many years (see practice note on Argentina).