In spite of these factors limiting the possibilities for leapfrogging, technology leapfrogging actually does take place. Internet and wireless technologies are making leapfrogging easier than before. The layered and modularized structure of Internet communication makes it possible to implement different aspects of Internet based communication on the basis of existing communication systems. Furthermore, the fact that the intelligence in communication systems is moving from the centers to the peripheries also makes it easier to establish systems in a more decentralized manner with less upfront capital requirements. Moreover, the costs of equipment are decreasing, which also applies to different forms of wireless communication. For example, it is cheaper to reach customers by means of mobile telephony than fixed-line telephony, and, mobile networks are not the only alternatives for local loop access. Different wireless solutions, such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc. can also be used.
Next Generation Access Networks