Member countries of the International Telecommunication Union typically operate monitoring facilities which aid spectrum managers in the prevention, detection, and control of (harmful) interference to radio transmitters. This is done to ensure that frequencies are used in accordance with the internationally planned spectrum framework. Since it is recognized that development and duplication of monitoring facilities is both uneconomical and operationally inefficient, cooperation exists among member countries in the operation of an international monitoring system. Article 16 of the Radio Regulations lays down the provisions governing the establishment and operation of the international monitoring system.
Stations comprising the international system check for transmissions that have effects beyond national boundaries, particularly for frequencies below 30 MHz, are in accordance with the internationally agreed conditions of operation. This includes checking frequency, bandwidth, emission type and usage. Where non-compliance with any prescribed condition is determined, the ITU provides for an infringement report to be sent via the Radiocommunication Bureau to the country responsible.
A good example of the far-reaching implications of interference is the international cooperation is demonstrated in the case of maritime coast stations and interference with maritime mobile services in New Zealand, Belgium and the United States.
Cooperation also occurs between countries on a bilateral basis and involves non-governmental organizations and industry associations who advise regulators on policy and technical matters. For example, broadcast and microwave propagation issues and solutions are identified and analyzed by associations and confirmed through spectrum monitoring tasks performed by the regulator.