Since its inception in 2000, a large number of people have supported the development of the ICT Regulation Toolkit and the Telecommunication Regulation Handbook. At infoDev and the World Bank, these included Ana Carrasco, Valerie D'Costa, Maria Farrell, Boutheina Guermazi, Tim Kelly, Mather Pfeiffenberger, Samia Melhem, Mostafa Terrab, Anna Palladino, Juan Navas-Sabater and Peter Smith. At ITU, these included Doreen Bogdan-Martin, Youlia Lozanova, Mario Maniewicz, Susan Schorr and Nancy Sundberg. In addition, David Grimshaw (DFID) Theresa Mediema (consultant), David Rogerson (Incyte Consulting) and Mercy Wanjau have all contributed.

Module 2. Competition and Price Regulation

NERA Economic Consulting (logo) 

NERA Economic Consulting is an international firm of economists who understand how markets work. We provide economic analysis and advice to corporations, governments, law firms, regulatory agencies, trade associations, and international agencies. Our global team of more than 500 professionals operates in 22 offices across North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.  More information about NERA Economic Consulting can be found at

  • Calvin S. Monson (, located in NERA Economic Consulting's Chicago office, is a Vice President in NERA's Communications Practice.  Mr. Monson has advised governments and private sector operators in many engagements involving telecommunications, public utility regulation, and competition policy questions.  Prior to joining NERA, he was BellSouth International's Vice President for Regulatory and Government Affairs with responsibility for Latin America.  He is a former telecommunications regulator, having served as Director of Telecommunications Policy at the Illinois Commerce Commission.
  • Agustin J. Ros (, located in NERA Economic Consulting's Boston office, is a Vice President in NERA's Communications Practice.  He has more than ten years of experience in the telecommunications industry, having advised and provided expert reports and testimony for telecommunications and regulatory agencies throughout the world and he has published numerous articles.  Previous to NERA, Dr. Ros worked on the landmark implementation of the U.S. Telecommunications Act of 1996 at the Federal Communications Commission.
  • Timothy J. Tardiff (, located in  NERA Economic Consulting’s Boston office,  is a Vice President in NERA’s Communications Practice.  He has published numerous articles and participated in regulatory proceedings in the United States, Canada, Peru, New Zealand, and Trinidad on economic issues such as interconnection, unbundled network elements, universal service, and price cap regulation.
  • Aniruddha Banerjee ( is a Vice President at Analysis Group, Inc. in Boston, and formerly a Vice President in the Communications Practice of NERA Economic Consulting.
  • Arturo Briceño (, located in NERA Economic Consulting's Chicago office, is a Senior Consultant in NERA's Communications Practice. He has advised governments and private telecommunications clients throughout Latin America, US and other countries. Mr. Briceno's telecommunication experience encompasses roles as an executive in BellSouth's international operations, consultant and regulator.

Kalba International, Inc. is an advisory firm specializing in the communications sector of small to medium-size economies, with expertise in the regulatory and market models of Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Korea, the United States and other ICT leaders.   Working with a global network of consultants, the firm has assisted over 100 clients address and resolve ICT development, convergence and regulatory issues in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East, Oceania, and North and South America.  More information about Kalba International, Inc. can be found at

  • Rob Frieden, Senior Regulatory Advisor at Kalba International, Inc. is also Pioneers Chair and Professor of Telecommunications at Penn State University.  Professor Frieden has advised governments on international settlements, Internet peering and VoIP policy, and has previously worked at the Federal Communications Commission and NTIA (U.S. Department of Commerce) as well as several law firms in Washington, DC.
  • Kas Kalba (, President of Kalba International, Inc., has advised governments, operators, and investors in more than 30 countries on sector liberalization, broadband and wireless strategy, spectrum/license tenders, and ICT adoption issues.  Dr. Kalba teaches a seminar on globalization and communications at Yale.

Castalia Strategic Advisors advises corporations and Governments on strategy, organisation and management. We are a multi-disciplinary firm, with experts in finance, economics, law and engineering. We work on complex strategic assignments, such as restructuring of enterprises and industries, appraisal of investment propositions, and development of regulation for network industries. Castalia is independent from any industrial or banking firm.  More information about Castalia Strategic Advisors can be found at

  • David Ehrhardt ( is the Chief Executive of Castalia Strategic Advisors. David’s experience has focused on strategy and the development of private-public partnerships in network industries. In telecommunications, water and electricity he has spearheaded new businesses, managed transactions, and designed effective regulatory and contractual frameworks. Mr. Ehrhardt also has considerable experience analyzing interconnection issues from a private sector perspective.
  • Stephen Gale ( is the Vice-President of Energy and Markets of Castalia Strategic Advisors. Stephen’s experience focuses on industrial organization, competition policy, financial modeling and institutional design. He participated in the design of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market and has been active in access and pricing issues in monopoly infrastructure like ports, airports, telephone networks, and electricity and gas distribution systems.
  • Anna McKinlay ( is a Manager with Castalia Strategic Advisors. Anna specializes in infrastructure regulation and competition policy, with a particular emphasis on telecommunications. She has been advising governments and the private sector on these issues since the early 1990s. Prior to her current role, Ms. McKinlay worked as a Strategic Policy Adviser for Telecom New Zealand. This involved advising the company on its regulatory strategy and responding to a government review of the regulatory regime for telecommunications.
  • Prabhat Sethi ( is an Analyst with Castalia Strategic Advisors. Prabhat specializes in regulatory analysis, and advising on infrastructure reform and best practice regulatory approaches. Mr. Sethi has provided competition policy analysis and advice in a wide variety of competition settings including price fixing, transportation mergers and alliances, asset pricing and power company acquisitions. Mr. Sethi’s recent experience includes advice on the competition implications of a proposed acquisition in the dairy sector, and competition advice on a number of related petroleum industry transactions. Prabhat has also assisted regulatory bodies in developing effective regulatory guidelines and address stakeholder and public concerns.

Theresa Miedema was the principal editor of an earlier version of the ICT Regulation Toolkit and contributed substantially to the previous version of Module 2. The original section on Regulatory Accounting in Module 2 was developed by Mr. Roland Belfin and Mr. Heinz Otruba.

  • Theresa Miedema ( serves as the Principal Editor of the ICT Regulation Toolkit.  Ms. Miedema is a lawyer based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  Her legal practice focuses on telecommunications law and regulatory capacity building.  She has advised a wide range of clients, including both private and public sector actors, on a variety of telecommunications-related matters.  Ms. Miedema is also an instructor in the Ethics, Society & Law programme at the University of Trinity College in the University of Toronto.  Ms. Miedema is currently completing a doctoral (SJD) degree in law at the University of Toronto.  Her dissertation focuses on law and international development.

  • Roland Belfin ( has been working for the Austrian Broadcasting and Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (RTR) since 1997. As a regulatory accounting expert he has been involved in various cost accounting exercises in a national and international context. With his PhD in business administration and his background as engineer for electronic communications he has a combined technical and economical background. Roland Belfin represents the Austrian regulator in national & international working groups and organisations. He also works as a trainer & speaker at national and international events including various projects organized by the European Commission and ITU.

Module 2 was revised in 2011 by John de Ridder. The current module is based on the module prepared 5 years earlier by the consultants and authors named above.

  • John de Ridder ( has run an independent telecoms consulting practice since 2002, advising government and private sector organisations on pricing and interconnection issues in telecommunications. For 18 years up to 2002, he held various positions at the Australian incumbent (known now as Telstra) including Chief Economist and Director Strategic Studies.

Module 3: Authorization of Telecommunications Services

developed with McCarthy Tétrault (logo)

McCarthy Tétrault has one of the world’s leading telecommunications law and consulting practices. The firm has over 750 lawyers and other professionals working in wide range of practice groups, located across Canada, in London and New York. The lawyers and consultants in McCarthy Tétrault’s telecommunications practice group have worked on regulatory and commercial matters across Canada and in over 40 countries in North, South and Central America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. The firm’s telecommunications practice is led by Hank Intven ( More information on the firm can be found at

  • Hank Intven ( is a partner in the Toronto office of McCarthy Tétrault, where he leads the firm’s international telecommunications practice. Mr. Intven has advised telecommunications operators, investors and regulatory bodies on a wide variety of business transactions, legislative, policy and regulatory matters in the telecommunications field in over 20 countries. Prior to joining McCarthy Tétrault, Mr. Intven was Executive Director of Telecommunications at the CRTC, the Canadian telecommunications regulatory authority.

  • Theresa Miedema ( is a consulting lawyer with McCarthy Tétrault LLP. Ms. Miedema has advised clients on a range of matters pertaining to telecommunications law, policy and regulation. Ms. Miedema also teaches a course on telecommunications law and policy. She is currently completing a doctoral (SJD) degree in law at the University of Toronto. Her dissertation is on the subject of law and development.

  • Brodie Swartz ( is a lawyer in the Toronto office of McCarthy Tétrault LLP. He is a member of the firm’s communications practice group with specialized experience relating to commercial and regulatory matters in the communications sector, both domestically and internationally.

  • Jennifer Martin is a legal assistant in the Toronto office of McCarthy Tétrault LLP. The Toolkit would not have been completed without the extraordinary efforts of Ms. Martin in assembling, editing and posting its content.

Module 4. Universal Access and Service


Intelecon Research & Consultancy Ltd. is a consulting firm focused on the communications sector and with special expertise in emerging markets and developing countries. We are also a world leading consultancy on universal access and service and have assisted numerous countries including Uganda, Mongolia, Botswana, Peru, Nigeria, Russia, India, Saudi Arabia and Mozambique. Our expertise derives from over 25 years of specialized experience in more than 50 countries. We have a proven record working with regulators and policymakers, financial institutions, operators and service providers. We are a multi-disciplinary team, bringing together a combination of strategic, economic, legal, business and technological expertise as well as in-depth policy and regulatory knowledge. More information can be found at

  • Andrew Dymond ( is Intelecon’s Founder and Managing Director. He is a senior telecommunications economist, as well as a professional telecommunications engineer, and has more than 30 years experience in the telecommunications industry internationally. Mr. Dymond has led numerous projects to assist policymakers and regulators in the development of their universal access and universal service strategies; he has established costing and funding mechanisms and played a pivotal role in the implementation of pilots and full national programs.
  • Sonja Oestmann ( is a Partner in the firm and is an experienced market, strategy and policy consultant. Ms. Oestmann has more than ten years professional experience managing policy and regulatory projects in telecommunications services for emerging markets and developing countries, especially concerning universal access and service. With a Masters Degree in Political Science and her initial experience at the European Commission, Ms Oestmann’s expertise also spans demand studies, market analysis, and policy and regulatory issues related to market liberalization and reform.
  • Kyle Whiting ( is a Senior ICT Consultant in market analysis, strategies, policy development and project implementation for ICT and telecommunication services in developing and developed country regions. With an academic grounding in rural development in the subject areas of information technologies, small business establishment and community-industry joint ventures, Mr. Whiting has specialized in market demand studies, sector policy development and best practices regarding the integration of ICTs and telecommunication services for development.
  • Christopher Smithers ( is a Senior Telecom Policy Consultant with a background in regulatory reform and consumer advocacy; he previously worked for the UK’s Ofcom. Mr. Smithers’ expertise is in consumer information and protection issues and includes quality of service, tariff, compliance, and dispute resolution initiatives. He also has experience developing institutional structures and telecommunication sector policy, drafting regulatory procedures and codes.
  • Claire and Robert Milne from Antelope Consulting ( were contributors to the UAS Module, in particular to Chapters 1,3 and 8. Antelope Consulting is an independent consultancy that has worked on telecommunications policy and strategy since 1992. Key areas of their expertise include regulation (consumer affairs, universal service, dispute resolution, affordability and numbering) and technology (next generation networks, rural access, technology selection, cost analysis and quality).

Module 5. Radio Spectrum Management


McLean Foster & Co. (logo)



McLean Foster & Co.'s specialty practice focuses on national spectrum management regulatory framework development and spectrum management and organizational capacity and capabilities. MCF has completed numerous assignments for telecommunications and spectrum management regulators in developing countries around the globe.

  • Adrian M. Foster M.B.A., CMC, ( He is a Spectrum Management Subject Matter Expert and Consultant with significant Emerging and Developing Economy Experience on small and large scale consulting projects similar to this assignment. He is a partner with McLean Foster & Co. and leads that firm’s Telecom and Spectrum Management practice.
  • Prof. Martin Cave, B.A., B.Phil. D.Phil, Oxford University ( Prof. Cave, is the Director of the Centre for Management Under Regulation at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick. He is also an adviser to Ofcom, the Postal Services Commission, European Commission, Office of Utility Regulation (Jamaica), Office of Fair Trading, Oftel, Member UK Competition Commission (1996-2002).
  • Mr. Robert W. Jones, M.A.Sc., M.B.A. He has over 27 years of direct experience in the technical, policy and managerial aspects of spectrum management at both the national and international levels. He has held positions of increasing responsibility in the Canadian spectrum regulatory body rising to the position of Director General of the Radiocommunications and Broadcasting Regulatory Branch. In 1994, he was elected by the Member States of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to the position of Director of the Radiocommunication Bureau at the ITU’s headquarters in Geneva. In 1998, he was re-elected for a second four year term.

Module 6. Legal and Institutional Framework


Telecommunications Management Group, Inc. (logo) 

Telecommunications Management Group, Inc. (TMG) is a highly regarded international consulting firm providing regulatory, economic, market, and financial advisory services in the telecommunications and information technology sector. TMG is comprised of a team of regulatory experts, lawyers, economists, market analysts, financial specialists, engineers, and spectrum management experts. Its senior consultants, many of whom are former government policymakers and regulators, have up to 30 years of experience in the international telecommunications industry and collectively have worked on telecommunications regulatory projects over 50 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. More information on TMG can be found at

  • Mindel De La Torre ( is President of TMG and has more than 19 years of international experience, 16 of which have been within the telecommunications industry. Ms. De La Torre, a lawyer, has worked on regulatory reform projects in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
  • Janet Hernández ( is Senior Vice President of TMG and has over 14 years of experience advising governments and domestic and international telecommunications and information technology companies on regulatory, legal and commercial matters.
  • Michele Wu ( is a legal and regulatory specialist with TMG with expertise of international telecommunications legal frameworks, licensing, internal procedures, enforcement, dispute resolution and consumer protection.
  • Sofie Maddens ( is a legal and regulatory specialist with TMG who has been involved in regulatory and legal work around the world in the telecommunications sector since 1989.
  • Amy Zirkle ( has more than 17 years experience in the telecommunications industry dealing with economic, technical, regulatory, legislative and business issues affecting both domestic and international markets.
  • Jeffrey Bernstein ( conducts analyses of telecommunications business and regulatory environments around the world and advises clients on relevant regulatory and strategy issues.
  • Daniel Leza ( is a lawyer and regulatory specialist with TMG with expertise in the areas of public law and regulation.
  • Victor Mulas ( is a lawyer and a regulatory specialist with TMG with substantial expertise on regulatory, licensing, interconnection and spectrum matters.
  • Virginia Schiffino ( is a lawyer who advises private and public sector clients on a wide variety of regulatory and commercial matters.
  • Mariana Vega ( is a telecommunications analyst who conducts comprehensive market research and analytical reports for such issues as wireless local area networks, 3G deployment, and universal service.
  • Christopher Dean ( is an economist by training and an information technology expert by profession, who specializes in Internet, technical engineering, and broadband issues.
  • Nadia Friloux ( has worked as a web designer/developer for the past 7 years. Her experience includes development and management of unique websites solutions from initial concept to live site.

Module 7. New Technologies and Impact on Regulation

This module was developed by Telecom Research Group (TRG), Center for Information and Communication Technologies (CICT), Technical University of Denmark.

  • Prof. Knud Skouby, Professor, Director, TRG
  • Anders Henten, Associate professor, TRG
  • Morten Falch, Associate professor, TRG
  • Reza Tadayoni, Associate professor, TRG
  • William H. Melody, Guest professor, CICT